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XUSUUSIN TAARIIKH::: MAQAALKII 2001


Qaybta 4aad. (Qaybtii 1aad ee maqaalkan halkan ka akhri)

VII) DAGAAL iyo DHAC KU TIIRSANAAN:

Qore: Cali-Nuuri
wamo93@aol.com

June 29, 2001

QAYBTA: 1aad | 2aad | 3aad | 4aad
QORAALLO::: 2001
MUSLIMIINTA DENMARK
Muslimiinta Denmark oo loo ogolaaday in ay yeeshaan dhul u gooni ah Qubuuraha Muslimiinta.
Akhri qoraalkii IbrahimSalah
 
DARAASAD
Daraasad lagu sameeyay Muslimiinta Maraykanka. Akhri
Qoraalkii Caddaawe
 
UBADKA QURBAHA
Maxaa Xal u ah Ubadka Soomaalida Qurbaha?
Guji halkan
 
MAPS
Somalia claims sovereignty over Ogaden, an ethnically Somali region of far eastern Ethiopia. In 1977 Somalia invaded Ogaden in an attempt to annex it, but Somali forces were defeated by the Ethiopian army in 1978. Ethiopia and Somalia signed a peace accord in 1988 but Somalia did not renounce its claim to the region.

Quote from Encarta Online

 
WAGGALLA MASSACRE
This act of genocide occurred in 1984 in Wagala near Wajir.
Read here
 
FALASTIIN
Maxay galaabsatay iimaan oo 4 jir ah
Guji halkan

 

Hab nololeedka Itoobiya waxaa astaan u ah dagaal iyo faqri. Inkastoo ay sheegato inay leedahay mid ka mid ah dawladaha adduunka ugu da weyn, haddana dawladdaasi waa midaan ka fursan karin ku jiridda dagaal joogta ah, dadkeeduna iska baddalin ahaanshaha kuwa ugu faqrisan adduunka. Isla markaa Xabasha laftigeeda ayaa ugu faqrisan Itoobiya oo dhan, ayadoo sababtu aanay ahayn mid la xiriirta dhulka (McCann 1987: 4). Sababaha taariikh ahaan dadkaas baday faqriga joogtada ah, Harbeson ayaa sawir ka bixiyay, asagoo xusay dhawr sababood:

1) Mas'uuliyiinta waddankaas oo aan wax xil ah iska saarin horumarka nolasha dadkooda.

2) Nadaamka bulsho ee waddankaasi wuxuu ka koobanyahay: madaxda dawladda iyo kaniisadda, beeralay maxaysato ah iyo miliishiyo (chawa) joogta ah oo laga qoro beeralaydaas.

3) Dadka oo maskaxdooda, waqtigooda iyo wax soo saarkoodaba ay la qaybsadeen kaniisadaha iyo xukumayaashu: 'U adeegidda khasabka ah ee madaxda siyaasadeed iyo baadariyada kaniisaduhu waxay ka jeedisay beeralayda yaryar shaqadii ay ku dabbarayeen noloshooda asaasiga ah'.

4) Waddanku awood uma yeelan inuu abuuro 'xarumo sugan oo awood dhaqaale iyo siyaasadeed'. Xattaa boqorradu ma lahayn xarun joogta ah Minilik ka hor. Inkastoo khadadka dhaadheer ee ganacsiga G/Afrika ay soo gaari jireen, haddana waddanku awood uma yeelan inuu soo saaro 'magaalooyin leh suuq ganacsi'.

5) Aafooyin dabiici ah oo joogta ah, sida abaaro, ayax iyo cudurro, ka sokow beeralayda maxaysatada ah waxaa kaloo dulsaar ku ahaa 'chawada'. Chawadu noloshooda waxay ka raadsanayeen dhac. markaa maxaysatadu waxay doorbidayeen inay ku biiraan chawada. (Harbeson 1988: 24-7).

Sidaa darteed,dagaalku wuxuu ahaa shaqada ugu weyn oo waddanku ku tiirsanyahay. Runtii taariikhda xabasha waxay ka koobantahay dagaal aan dhammaad lahayn oo boqorradu hogaaminayeen kaniisaduhuna u barakeynayeen, oo lagu qaadayay dadyowga dariska la ah. Tan iyo boqor Ezana oo ahaa Q4aad, boqorrada Xabasha ee xilli kasta wararka laga qoray waa xasuuq, dhac iyo qafaalasho ay ku sameeyeen dariskooda. Boqorradu waxay ahaayeen abaan duulayaal ciidan oo ku nool xero ciidan oo wareegaalaysata, hadbana loo raro soohdintii dagaal ka jiro. (matalan fiiri: Tamrat fii CHA, iii: 545-8; Tamrat 1972: 134-5, 149; Huntingford 1965: 56, 60-1, 104; Huntingford 1989: 25-55). Dadkii hore waa ogaayeen dabciga 'shilinta' ah ee 'chawada'. Garaad Maxfuud, mar uu la soo noqday gobalkii Fatagar, beeralayda wuxuu u sheegay inay beerahooda fashaan, chawadiina intuu ururiyay ayuu laayay.

Ma aha oo kaliya in arrintaas tusaalayaal badan looga heli karo dhacdooyinka qarniyadii dhexe.

Dr. Smith Xabashida cusub ee reer Yurub koolkoolinayeen waatuu ku tilmaamay "savages bearing arms against other poor defenseless Africans'. Booqashadiisii ka bacdi waxaa loo sheegay: dadka degaanka Sasabane 'waxaa weeraray ciidan uu u taliyo Mokannen [Xayle Selaase aabihii], xoolahoodii dhammaan waa la dhacay, wiilashii iyo gabdhihii addoon ahaan ayaa loo kaxaystay, dadkii waaweynaana waa la laayay ama waa la xubna jaray'. Gaalladana waxyaalahaas oo kale ayaa ku dhacay. (FitzGibbon 1982: 24).

Boqorrada iyo baadariyadu dagaalka waxay u yeelayeen ujeeddo diini ah. Laakiin falku wuxuu ahaa tacaddi iyo burburin dareen nafsi ah, oo la xiriira magaca Amxaara, ku reebay dadyowga Geeska Afrika. Nolosha seefta ama qorigu 'chawada' waxay u ahayd fursad u dhaanta tii yaambada. Hantida cadowga laga bililiqaystaana waa ka cantuuga wacneyd culayska maxaysatannimada. Sidoo kale gibirka ama baadda laga qaado dadyowga la qabsaday waxay ahayd dakhliga ugu muhimsan ee boqorrada, kaniisadda iyo wakiilladooda. Sida hadalkii sir Alfred 'Abyssinians " have no other employment than that of making raids on Gallas and Somalis'. Iyo kii Rosebery " to enable Somalis to protect themselves against the incursions of predatory bands of Abyssinia'.

Maamulka Meles waxba kama baddalin dhaqankaas. Waxyaalihii ilaa 1992 ka dhacayay G/Afrika waxay xusuusiyeen falalkii Yisxaaq, Susenyos, Yohannes, Minilik iwm., oo cadaabid iy argagaxisnimo lagu sii daray (fiiri tqr. 2) . Wali Itoobiya waxay ku maaleysaa reer galbeedka, kuna maaweelinaysaa dadkeeda ka hortagga cadow aan isbaddal lahayn oo xuduudeeda dhooban. Wax lala yaabo ayay ahayd, sida ION ay cabbirtay, Itoobiya markay ka soo fara xalatay dagaalkii Eritreeya inay abaabusho olole dagaal oo ka dhan ah Soomaaliya ayadoo dadkeeda u sheegaysa 'Masar ayaa ina soo weerareysa', maadaama aan cidina maanta garaysan karin dagaal Soomaaliya ah (fiiri tqr.3).

Talo, tusaalayn, iyo faallo laxiriirta qoraalkaan ku hagaaji:
Qore: Cali-Nuuri
wamo93@aol.com

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TIXRAAC:

Atlas of the Bible, tfr: Gardener, Joseph, with others; Readers digest association, 1981

Adamson, Joy: The Peoples of Kenya, 1971

Asfaw, Appleyard & Ullendorff: The Amharic letters of emperor Theodore of Ethiopia to queen Victoria - Oxford Univ. Press, 1979

Allen, James de Vere: Sawahili origins, 1993

Ali, M. Nuh: History of Horn of Africa; 1985

Ali, Mohamed: Ethnecity, Politics and society in Northeast Africa; Univ. of America Press, 1996

Being and Becoming Oromo, tfy: P. T. W. Baxter, J. Hultin & Elessandro Triulzi; Red Sea Press, 1996

Beckingham & Huntingford, 1961 [Alvares: Prester John of Indies 1920]; bb. 296, 407-8, 453

Patman, Robert: The Soviet Union in the Horn of Africa; Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990

Pankhurst, Richard: -Ethiopians; Blackwell publishers, 1998

-The Ethiopian Borderlands; Red Sea Press, 1997

Proceedings of First international congress of Somali studies, tafaftiray (tfr): Adam, Hussein & Geshekter, Charles; Schollars Press, 1992

Tamrat, Taddesse: Church and State in Ethiopia; oxford Univ. Press, 1972

Touval, Saadia: Somali Nationalism; Harvard Univ. Press, 1963

Trimingham, John: Islam in Ethiopia; Frank cass & Co., 1965

Jalata, Asafa: Oromia and Ethiopia; L. R. Publishers, 1993

Drysdale, J. G. S. : The Somali Dispute; F. A. Praeger, 1964

Rubenson, Sven: The survival of Ethiopian independence: Heinmann within associations, 1976

Zewde, Bahru: A History of modern Ethiopia; Ohio Univ. Press, 1991

Sauldie, Madan M. : Super powers in the Horn of Africa; APT books, 1987

Selassie, Bereket H. : Confilict and intervention in the Horn of Africa; Monthly Review Press, 1980

Strandes, ed. by Kirkman: The Portuguese period in East Africa, 1968

Sheik-Abdi, Abdi: Divine Madness(M. A. Hassan 1856-1920); Zed books, 1993

Cassanelli, Lee: The Shaping of Somali Society; Univer. of PA Press, 1982; bb. 84-100

Cambridge History of Africa (CHA); Majallah iii, tfr: Oliver, Roland; Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976

Cerulli, Enrico: Somalia, Scritti vari editi ed inediti; 1967

Greenfield, Richard: Ethiopia: A New political history; F.A. Praeger, 1965

Farago, Ladislas: Abyssinia on the Eve; Putman C. G., 1935

FitzGibbon, Louis: -The Betrayal of the Somalis; R. Collings, 1982 -The Evaded Duty 1984

Freeman-Grenville: the East African selected documents, Rex Collings 1975

Kobishchanov, Yuri: Axum; the PA State Univ. Press, 1979

Lewis, I. M.: A Modern History of Somalia; 1980

Lipsky, George: Ethiopia: its people, its society and its culture; Hraff Press, 1962

Marcus, Harold:
-A History of Ethiopia; Univ. of CA Press, 1994
-Ethiopia, Great Britain and U.S. 1941-1974; Univ. of CA Press, 1983
- New trends in Ethiopian studies/12th internl conference, tfy: Marcus; R.S. Press, 1994

McCann, James: From poverty to famine in the Northeast Ethiopia; Univ. of PA Press, 1987

Nicholls: The Sawahili Coast, 1971

Harbeson, John W. : The Ethiopian transformation; Westview Press, 1988

Hassen, Mohamed: Oromo of Ethiopia, Campridge Univ. Press, 1990

Hess, Robert: Italian colonialism in Somalia, the Univer. Of Chicago press, 1966

Huntingford, G. W. B.: -The Historical Geography of Ethiopia; oxford Univ. Press, 1989

-The Glorious victories of Amda Seyon, king of Ethiopia; Oxford Press, 1965

Ibn Saciid, Abul Xasan Cali: Kitaab Al-jughraafiyaa 1970; bb. 70-83

Al-Cumari, Axmed Yaxyaa: Masaalikal-Absaar fii Mamaalikil-Amsaar, 1988; bb. 35-46

Al-Maqriizi, Taqiyyud-Diin: Rasaa'ilul-Maqriizi-Ilmaam, 1998

Al-Mascuudi: Muruujud-Dahab wa macaadinil jawhar,1982; mj. i.

Shihaabud-Diin Axmed, Carab-faqiih: Futuuxal-Xabashah, 1974

Ibn Hishaam, Siirah, taxqiiq: As-Saqqaa, Al-Abyaari & Shalbi; majallah i; Daaral-Khayr 1995

Al-Mubaarakfawri, safiyyur-Raxmaan: Ar-Raxiiqul Makhtuum; Daaral-Qalam, 1976

Taqaariir (qaybta 2aad):
1) HOL: 
2) Sahan - Boosaaso 14/2/2000 # 155; Al-Mujtamac, Maaris 2001, bb. 24-5; Somali Islamic Society of Canada Communique #4, 1997; German-Ogaden friendship fii HOL, Abriil 2001 3) ION: Indian Ocean Newsletter #937 fiiri Somalitalk.com; 10/2/2001

Maqaalkani asal ahaan waxa uu SomaliTalk.com ku soo baxay June 29, 2001 | Updated: Nov 19, 2005


 
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