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December 17, 2003

Yaa Sameeyay Diyaarad Matoor leh tii ugu horeysay?

Musannifiinta Orville Wright iyo Wilbur Wright

 

Sannad walba bisha December maalinta ay tahay 17, waxaa munaasabad dabbaaldeg ah lagu qabtaa  goobta magaceeda la yiraahdo Wright Brothers National Memorial oo ku taalla dalka mareykanka. Dabbaaldeggaas waxaa lagu sharfaa diyaaraddii ugu horeysay oo matoor (machine) leh oo sameysay duulimaadkii ugu horeeyay ee adduunka ka dhaca.

 

Laba nin oo walaalo ahaa oo u dhashay dalka mareykanka ayay ahaayeen kuwii ugu horeeyay ee sameeyay dayuurad matoor (machine) leh ee hawada ku duusha. Labadaas nin waxay kala ahaayeen Orville Wright iyo Wilbur Wright.

 

Sannadkii 1903-dii ayay sameeyeen dayuuraddii ugu horeysay. Hase ahaatee, tii ugu horeysay ee farsamo ahaan isku rakiban ama is-raacsan waxay sameeyeen sannadkii 1905-tii. Inta badan, labadaas nin iyaga ayaa wax isbaray. Waxayna bilaabeen tusmaynta ama sameynta nakhshadda diyaarad-samaynta oo ilaa iyo hadda laga tusaale qaato. Markii dambana waxay bilaabeen in ay sameeyaan isla markaasna ay iibiyaan baaskiillada. Lacagtii ay ka heleen ganacsigaas ayay ku hawl-galeen sannadihii hore tijaabooyinkii ay sameynayeen ee la xiriiray farsamaynta dayuuradaha.   

Lilienthal Glider sketch

Wilbur ayaa markii hore ku horeeyay xiisaha waxa duula, kadib markii uu akhriyay buug ka sheekeynaya nin Jarmal ahaa oo magaciisa la oran jiray  Otto Lilienthal (eeg sawirka bidix) oo isagu ku guuleystay tijaabooyin duulimaad oo ahaa dayuurad aan matoor (machine) lahayn, magaceedana uu u bixiyay Derwitzer Glider. Diyaaraddaas waxaa loo raacayey kolba dhinaca ay hawadu u socoto. Nasiib darro, Mr. Otto Lilienthal waxaa la burburtay diyaarad ka mid ah kuwii uu sameeyay ee aan matoorka lahayn isagoo hawada ku jira, wuxuuna u dhintay dhaawac kasoo gaaray burburkaas taariikhdu markay ahayd 10-kii bishii August, 1896.

Haddaba, taariikhdu markay ahayd 1899, ayaa Wilbur Wright iyo walaalkiis Orville Wright waxay arkeen sida ay u duulaan shimbiraha loo yaqaanno “Birds of Prey”. Waxay u fiirsadeen sida ay shimbiruhu u duulaan oo ay baalashooda kolba si ugu dhigaan. Waxay ogaadeen in samaynta dayuurad hawada ku socota ay suurtagal noqon karto haddii la helo saddexdan  arrimood: 1. Baalal ama garbo kor u qaada (wings to lift it), 2. quwad lagu dhaqaajiyo (power to move it through the air), 3. iyo aalad lugu hago inta ay hawada ku jirto (a device to control it during flight).

 

Dayuuraddii ugu horeysay oo ay sameeyeen sannadkii 1899 waxaa baalasheeda lagu weec-weecinayey gacanta oo lagu qabanayey marka dhinac kale loo jihaynayo (leexinayo). Haddaba wiilashaas walaalaha ahaa, waxay sii kordhiyeen hawshii ku saabsanayd diyaarad samaynta, waxayna sameeyeen diyaaraddii ugu horeysay ee matoor ku duusha taas oo ay uga mid noqdeen dadka taariikhda galay ee loo yaqaano musannifiin (inventors) taariikhdu markay ahayd 17-kii December 1903.

 

Kicitaankii koobaad ee dayaaraddaasi sameysay waxay qaadatay 12 ilbiriqsi (seconds), kii ugu dambeeyay ee ay isla maalintaas sameysayna waxay ku qaadatay 59 ilbiriqsi (seconds), waxayna socotay ilaa 852 fuud (foot). Sannadkii 1905-tii ayaa Wilbur Wright iyo walaalkiis Orville Wright waxay sameeyeen dayuurad farsamo ahaan isu-dhan oo leex-leexan karta. Diyaaraddaasi waxay hawada ku jirtay muddo dhan saacad barkeed ah (½ hour).

 

Haddaba markii ay wax natiijo ah kasoo bixi waayeen wada-hadallo ay la yeesheen ciidamadii Mareykanka oo diiday in ay ku guuleysteen samaynta dayuurad ay iibin karaan, ayaa iyagoo ka cabsanaya in si basaasnimo ah looga xado fikradda ay adduunka ku soo biiriyeen, waxay diideen in ay mid dambe kiciyaan ilaa inta ay ka helayaan cid aqoontooda ka iibsata haddii ay noqon lahayd dowlad ama shacab intaba. Waxayna billaabeen in ay si qarsoodi ah duulimaadkooda u samaystaan.

 

Haddaba sannadkii 1909, Orville Wright wuxuu ku guuleystay in uu qandaraas (contract) ka helo ciidamadii mareykanka, wuxuuna u sameeyay dayuuraddii ugu horeysay ee ciidamadu yeeshaan.

 

Haddaba wiilashaas Wilbur iyo walaalkiis Orville ayaa cilmiga diyaarad-samaynta u sareeyay Yurub iyo Mareykanba ilaa 1911-kii.  Wilbur wuxuu u dhintay cudurka tiifowga (typhoid-ka) sannadkii 1912-kii. Laakiin Orville wuxuu sii noolaa ilaa sannadkii 1948-kii, wuxuuna wax weyn kusii kordhiyay cilmiga diyaarad-samaynta. Waxaa xusid mudan in labadooduba ay dhinteen iyaga oo aan guursan. Waxaana la dhihi karaa in jacaylkoodu uu ku koobnaa ama kusii jeeday samaynta iyo hawlgelinta dayuuradaha. Waxayna ahaayeen kuwii noo horseeday (pioneers) adeegsiga dayuuradaha oo iminka qof kasta oo bani-aadam ah uu waxtarkooda aqoonsanyahay.

 

Waxaa Diyaariyay

 

Cabdulfataax Maxamed Cabdulle

Ottawa, Ont. Canada

abdulfatah@yahoo.com

-Wassalaamu Calaykum

.Nayjeeriya oo Hawada u Dirtay Dayaxgacmeed

.Dayaxgacmeed Cusub oo Loo Diray Hawada

.Cirbixiyeenkii Shiinaha oo Dhulka ku soo Noqday

 

JARAA'IDKKA & SOOMAALIDA
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